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Whether we simply are living with dogs, or training them we all need knowledge of canine physical structure. First thing any professional would recommend in a sudden change in behavior is a full veterinarian check up. If we are observing any behavior that is not normally characteristic such as sudden observable behavior related to any type of aggression get a full vet check. Here we will learn about external anatomy to better understand how your dogs may be feeling in any environmental context. Note: We will be updating this section at times. Join our newsletter for updated info...
Ears Erect or Angled Forward
Dogs whose ears are forward convey alertness and confidence.
A good rule to follow when looking at ears and body language is:
Everything Being Pulled Forward Can Mean:
- Confident (Which can also include threat or aggression)
Everything Being Pulled back:
- Frightened (Which can also include threat or aggression)
Ears back but not flattened convey appeasment.
"Ears pressed back they virtually disappear" (Goodman, et al, 2002)
Dog with seal ears, in this display of appeasement tinged with submission and fear.
Pinched ears are only visible in floppy eared dogs like Goldens, Labs or Hounds. The ear is turned parallel to the side of the face (not back or forward) and pulled to the head. Pinched ears usually happen when a dog is very stressed or fearful.
When a dogs ears are extended out to the sides of their heads, they are usually in the state of conflict, most likely experiencing more than one set of feelings, confused on how to make a decision or how to react. Always check each dogs natural position as some my be extended out naturally.
With this dog possibly a visual stimuli something is approaching which has his ears in an airplane position, some whale eye and we see the beginning of lips getting small and commissure of the lips is moving forward.
Ears Semi-Erect, Turned Outwards Towards Sound
A dog is alert and listening. Note that ears also can move independently of each other, in order to narrow down location of sound.
Ears Flattened Back
Dogs that are frightened may flatten their ears against the sides of their heads. In this position it may also suggest an antagonistic response to a perceived threat.
In this photo we can see ears are relaxed an flopping with movement. The dog without the ball has ears that are in a relaxed alert movement.
Dogs eyes express many feelings or a state of mind at any given moment. Remember when reading dogs we always take into account the environmental context and read the whole dog. Most body language signals happen in sequence. Learning to read dogs will become a big part of your skill to help and assess all dogs and help predict what a dog might do next.
Lips and Commissure of Lips
Lips tell us so much when viewed in context. The changes dogs lips make in positions communicate many subtle and bigger dramatic expressions of emotions. Commissure of lips is where the upper lip and lower lip meet and will definitely hear this term in the profession. Observing the commissure of the lips gives us very important information about aggression or other emotions.
We are going to start with one of the most misconceptions about a dogs tail. The myth that a dog wagging its tail is happy and friendly. Of course some wags are associated with happiness but most of the time we look at a tail wagging as arousal. Some wags are associated with fear, social challenges or even a warning on approach, you are likely to be bitten. One important thing to always remember when looking at body language, we need to read the whole dog and environmental context always.
A dog's tail positions change with activity and attitude. We should keep in mind each dog breeds natural tail position to learn how it changes in all different environmental context.
"Tail-wagging is a context-specific behaviour, which signals excitabiltiy or stimulation, such as friendliness/confidence, anxiousness and even a threat of aggressive behvaior" (Serpell, 1995, p.119)
Tail Level with Topline of Back
This is a natural tail position for this dog.
A big indicator of fear is a tucked tail and remember to always read the whole dog. In this dog you can also observe dilated eyes, ears back or airplane ears (state of conflict).
The black dogs tail slightly raised less than the tan dogs. Both tails suggest alertness and aroused. You notice also ears forward and bodies seem to be stiff like they just heard a noise.
Tail Lowered below Topline
A Husky that has a natural tail carriage that is high and curled over the back, a lowered tail is a big observable change. In order for us to know the relevance of any body part we must know the natural relaxed position for the tail. We also must understand the environmental context in that moment. Remember we always read the whole dog.
Tail Raised High Over Topline of back
This dog has a raised tail that may suggest arousal.
Tip Of tail Raised Slightly
This dogs eras are forward with tip of tail raised. Good sign of alertness and excited.
Tail Raised, Curling Above Topline.
With this husky, the raised, loosely curled tail can be his natural relaxed position. If he would get more aroused the tail may raise higher with a tighter curl. Always watch each dogs natural tail position and how it changes depending on the environmental context.
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